FIKO  Electron-beam metallurgical plant

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The man is blessed who believes in God Psalm 39:5
 

TITANIUM TUBES


 

tube, pipe

Titanium tubes Grade 1

Titanium tubes Grade 2

Titanium tubes Grade 9

Titanium tubes Grade Ti6Al-4V

Titanium tubes Grade 1М

Titanium tubes Grade VТ1-0

Titanium tubes Grade PT3M

 

Titanium Grades

Titanium tubes:

Forged, rolled, seamless, welded, extruded.

 

We  takes orders for manufacture of titanium tubes and capillary titanium tubes

 

 

 

TITANIUM SHEETS


 

titanium sheets

Titanium sheets Grade 1

Titanium sheets Grade 2

Titanium sheets Grade 9

Titanium sheets Grade Ti6Al-4V

Titanium sheets Grade 1М

Titanium sheets Grade VТ1-0

Titanium sheets Grade PT3M

Titanium sheets Grade ОT4

Titanium sheets Grade VT 20

Titanium sheets Grade VT 23

Titanium sheets Grade VT 14

Titanium sheets Grade VT5-1

 

 

Titanium Sheets

 

Titanium plates for heat exchangers

 Vacuum pumps and valves

We take orders for manufacture of following:

- Titanium disks

- Titanium flanges

- Titanium plates for heat exchangers

with dia. 1550mm from titanium bars, titanium plates and titanium sheets.

 

 

TITANIUM BAR


 

bar, bars, rod

Titanium bar Grade 1

Titanium bars Grade 2

Titanium bars Grade 9

Titanium bars Grade Ti6Al-4V

Titanium bar Grade 1М

Titanium bar Grade VТ1-0

Titanium bar Grade PT3M

Titanium bars Grade ОT4

Titanium barts Grade VT 20

Titanium bar Grade VT 23

Titanium bars Grade VT 14

Titanium bar Grade VT5-1

Titanium bars Grade VT3-1

Titanium bar Grade VT16

 

Titanium Bars and Wire

 

Titanium Ingots, bars Ti 5V

 

 

Titanium bars:

Forged, rolled, seamless, welded, extruded.

 

 

TITANIUM INGOTS and SLABS


 

 

titanium manufacture

 

Titanium ingots Grade 1

Titanium  ingots Grade 2

Titanium  ingots Grade Ti6Al-4V

 

Titanium ingots Grade-1/ Grade-2

Titanium ingots Ti6Al-4V

Titanium slabs

 

Titanium square

 

Titanium disks

 

 Titanium flanges

 

Titanium Tanks

 

 Titanium Melting Equipment

 

 

 

TITANIUM NITRIDE COATING


 

TITANIUM NITRIDE COATING

Technology of vacuum evaporation is used when depositing decorative composite coating on materials of internal and external design of architectural buildings, roofs of temples and domes, consumer goods and bijouterie.

Coating with persistent ecologically clean materials (titanium nitrides, carbides, oxides, titanium carbooxinitrides, gold and other precious metals and alloys, diamond-like carbon) is made on sheet or shaped articles from stainless steel, glass and other materials by vacuum ionic technologies, reactive magnetron sputtering and arc spraying in modern spraying systems.

Materials with such composite coating are suggested to be used when decorating facades, dome and temple roofs coating and buildings internal and external design decorating, gold-plate changing on different articles of church and society purposes.

Titanium nitride is applied for domes of religious buildings because it is able to change tinsel at considerable depreciation of works and materials.

 

 

 

 

TITANIUM NITRIDE COATING

TITANIUM NITRIDE sphere

    

 TITANIUM NITRIDE TITANIUM NITRIDE COATING


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TITANIUM ASTM GRADES

Unalloyed titanium (C.P):

 

ASTM Grade 1

ASTM Grade 1 :   titanium bar, titanium sheet, titanium plate, titanium wire, titanium tube, titanium pipe, titanium ingot

ASTM Grade 1: titanium bars, titanium sheets, titanium plates, titanium wires, titanium tubes, titanium pipes, titanium ingots  

ASTM Grade 2

ASTM Grade 2  : titanium bars, titanium sheets, titanium plates, titanium wires, titanium tubes, titanium pipes, titanium ingots ASTM Grade 2 :  titanium bar, titanium sheet, titanium plate, titanium wire, titanium tube, titanium pipe, titanium ingot  

ASTM Grade 3

ASTM Grade 3 :  titanium bar, titanium sheet, titanium plate, titanium wire, titanium tube, titanium pipe, titanium ingot

ASTM Grade 3 : titanium bars, titanium sheets, titanium plates, titanium wires, titanium tubes, titanium pipes, titanium ingots  

ASTM Grade 4

ASTM Grade 4: titanium bars, titanium sheets, titanium plates, titanium wires, titanium tubes, titanium pipes, titanium ingots ASTM Grade 4 : titanium bar, titanium sheet, titanium plate, titanium wire, titanium tube, titanium pipe, titanium ingot  

 

 

 

Titanium alloy

ASTM Grade 5

ASTM Grade 5 (Ti 6 % aluminum, 4 % vanadium):                                                                                                                                               Titanium alloy   titanium bar, titanium sheet, titanium plate, titanium wire, titanium tube, titanium pipe, titanium ingot  

ASTM Grade 6

ASTM Grade 6 (Ti 5 % aluminum, 2.5 % tin):                                                                                                                                     Titanium alloy titanium bars, titanium sheets, titanium plates, titanium wire, titanium tubes, titanium pipes, titanium ingots

ASTM Grade 9

ASTM Grade 9 (Ti 3 % aluminum, 2.5 % vanadium):                                                                                                                       Titanium alloy   titanium bars, titanium sheets, titanium plates, titanium wire, titanium tubes, titanium pipes, titanium ingots

ASTM  Grade 12

ASTM  Grade 12  (Ti 0.3 % molybdenum, 0.8 % nickel):                                                                                                                  Titanium alloy titanium bars, titanium sheets, titanium plates, titanium wire, titanium tubes, titanium pipes, titanium ingots

ASTM Grade 13

ASTM Grade 13  (Ti 0.5 % nickel, 0.05 % ruthenium):                                                                                                                         Titanium alloy titanium bar, titanium sheet, titanium plate, titanium wire, titanium tube, titanium pipe, titanium ingot

ASTM Grade 14

ASTM Grade 14  (Ti 0.5 % nickel, 0.05 % ruthenium):                                                                                                              Titanium alloy titanium bars, titanium sheets, titanium plates, titanium wire, titanium tubes, titanium pipes, titanium ingots

ASTM Grade 15

ASTM Grade 15 (Ti 0.5 % nickel, 0.05 % ruthenium):                                                                                                                      Titanium alloy titanium bar, titanium sheet, titanium plate, titanium wire, titanium tube, titanium pipe, titanium ingot

ASTM Grade 18

ASTM GRADE 18  (Ti 3 % aluminum, 2.5 % vanadium) plus 0.04 to 0.08 % palladium:                                                           Titanium alloy titanium bars, titanium sheets, titanium plates, titanium wire, titanium tubes, titanium pipes, titanium ingots

 

ASTM Grade 19

ASTM Grade 19 (Ti 3 % aluminum, 8 % vanadium, 6 % chromium, 4 % zirconium, 4 % molybdenum):                             Titanium alloy titanium bar, titanium sheet, titanium plate, titanium wire, titanium tube, titanium pipe, titanium ingot

ASTM Grade 20

ASTM Grade 20  (Ti 3 % aluminum, 8 % vanadium, 6 % chromium, 4 % zirconium, 4 % molybdenum) plus 0.04 %-0.08 % palladium ):  Titanium alloy titanium bars , titanium sheets , titanium plates, titanium wire, titanium tubes, titanium pipes, titanium ingots

ASTM Grade 21

ASTM Grade 21 (Ti 15 % molybdenum, 3 % aluminum, 2.7 % niobium, 0.25 % silicon):                                                         Titanium alloy  titanium bar, titanium sheet, titanium plate, titanium wire, titanium tube, titanium pipe, titanium ingot

ASTM Grade 23

ASTM Grade 23  (Ti 6 % aluminum, 4 % vanadium with extra low interstitial elements, ELI)                                                       Titanium alloy    titanium bars, titanium sheets, titanium plates, titanium wire, titanium tubes, titanium pipes, titanium ingots 

ASTM Grade 24

ASTM Grade 24  (Ti 6 % aluminum, 4 % vanadium) plus 0.04 % to 0.08 % palladium :                                                   Titanium alloy     titanium bars, titanium sheets, titanium plates, titanium wire, titanium tubes, titanium pipes, titanium ingots 

ASTM Grade 25

ASTM Grade 25  (Ti 6 % aluminum, 4 % vanadium) plus 0.3 % to 0.8 % nickel and 0.04 % to 0.08 % palladium :        Titanium alloy titanium bar, titanium sheet, titanium plate, titanium wire, titanium tube, titanium pipe, titanium ingot 

ASTM Grade 28

ASTM Grade 28 (Ti 3 % aluminum, 2.5 % vanadium plus 0.08-0.14 % ruthenium):                                                            Titanium alloy titanium bars, titanium sheets, titanium plates, titanium wire, titanium tubes, titanium pipes, titanium ingots 

ASTM Grade 29

ASTM Grade 29  (Ti 6 % aluminum, 4 % vanadium, extra low interstitial, ELI plus 0.08-0.14 % ruthenium):                     Titanium alloy titanium bar, titanium sheet, titanium plate, titanium wire, titanium tube, titanium pipe,  titanium ingot 

ASTM Grade 30

ASTM Grade 30  (Ti 0.3 % cobalt, 0.05 % palladium) :                                                                                                            Titanium alloy titanium bars, titanium sheets, titanium plates, titanium wire, titanium tubes, titanium pipes,  titanium ingots 

ASTM Grade 31

ASTM Grade 31  (Ti 0.3 % cobalt, 0.05 % palladium) :                                                                                                         Titanium alloy titanium bar, titanium sheet, titanium plate, titanium wire, titanium tube, titanium pipe,  titanium ingot 

ASTM Grade 32

ASTM Grade 32  (Ti 5 % aluminum, 1 % tin, 1 % zirconium, 1 % vanadium, 0.8 % molybdenum):                                                      Titanium alloy titanium bars, titanium sheets, titanium plates, titanium wire, titanium tubes, titanium pipes,  titanium ingots 

ASTM Grade 33

ASTM Grade 33  (Ti 0.4 % nickel, 0.015 % palladium, 0.025 % ruthenium, 0.15 % chromium):                                      Titanium alloy titanium bar, titanium sheet, titanium plate, titanium wire, titanium tube, titanium pipe,  titanium ingot 

ASTM Grade 34

ASTM Grade 34  (Ti 0.4 % nickel, 0.015 % palladium, 0.025 % ruthenium, 0.15 % chromium):                                            Titanium alloy titanium bars, titanium sheets, titanium plates, titanium wire, titanium tubes, titanium pipes,  titanium ingots 

ASTM Grade 35

ASTM Grade 35  (Ti 4.5 % aluminum, 2 % molybdenum, 1.6 % vanadium, 0.5 % iron, 0.3 % silicon):                               Titanium alloy titanium bar, titanium sheet, titanium plate, titanium wire, titanium tube, titanium pipe,  titanium ingot 

ASTM Grade 36

ASTM Grade 36  (Ti45 % niobium):                                                                                                                                       Titanium alloy titanium bars, titanium sheets, titanium plates, titanium wire, titanium tubes, titanium pipes,  titanium ingots 

ASTM Grade 37

ASTM GRADE 37 (Ti 1.5 % aluminum):                                                                                                                                       Titanium Alloy  titanium bar, titanium sheet, titanium plate, titanium wire, titanium tube, titanium pipe,  titanium ingot 

 

Unalloyed titanium plus

ASTM Grade 7

ASTM Grade 7 Unalloyed titanium plus 0.12 to 0.25 % palladium ):  titanium bar, titanium sheet, titanium plate, titanium wire, titanium tube, titanium pipe, titanium ingot

ASTM Grade 11

ASTM Grade 11 Unalloyed titanium plus 0.12 to 0.25 % palladium:  titanium bar, titanium sheet, titanium plate, titanium wire, titanium tube, titanium pipe, titanium ingot

ASTM Grade 16

ASTM Grade 16 Unalloyed titanium plus 0.04 to 0.08 % palladium ):  titanium bars, titanium sheets, titanium plates, titanium wire, titanium tubes, titanium pipes, titanium ingots

ASTM Grade 17

ASTM Grade 17 Unalloyed titanium plus 0.04 to 0.08 % palladium:  titanium bar, titanium sheet, titanium plate, titanium wire, titanium tube, titanium pipe, titanium ingot

ASTM Grade 26

ASTM Grade 26 Unalloyed titanium plus 0.08 to 0.14 % ruthenium  palladium:  titanium bars, titanium sheets, titanium plates, titanium wire, titanium tubes, titanium pipes, titanium ingots 

ASTM Grade 27

ASTM Grade 27 Unalloyed titanium plus 0.08 to 0.14 % ruthenium:  titanium bar, titanium sheet, titanium plate, titanium wire, titanium tube, titanium pipe, titanium ingot 

 

TITANIUM GRADE GOST 23755-79

FIKO is a private industrial company, owner of titanium mill in Kiev, Ukraine, for melting titanium ingots with their further working into rolled titanium titanium bars, titanium tubes, titanium sheets, titanium plates, titanium wire.

  Main composition 

                                    Other elements 

 

Grades

Ti

Al

Mn

Mo

V

Zr

Cr

Tin

Si

Fe

C

Fe

Si

Zr

O

N

H

Res

Grades

Unalloyd   titanium (C.P)VT1-00

base

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

0.07

0.25

0.1

 

0.04-0.025

0.04

0.01

0.03

Titanium sheet

Titanim bars GOST VT1-0

base

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

0,07

0,25

0,1

 

0,2

0,04

0,01

0,3

Titanium sheet

Titanium alloy

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Titanium alloy

Titanim bars

GOST OT4-0

base

0.4-1.4

0.5-1.3

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

0,1

0,3

0,12

0,3

0,15

0,05

0,012

0,3

Titanium sheets

Titanim tubes

GOST OT4-1

base

1.5-2.5

0.7-2.0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

0,1

0,3

0,12

0,3

0,15

0,05

0,012

0,3

Titanium plates

Titanim tubes

GOST OT4

base

3.5-5.0

0.8-2.0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

0,1

0,3

0,12

0,3

0,15

0,05

0,012

0,3

Titanium plates

Titanim bar GOST VT5-1

base

4.3-6.0

 

 

 

 

 

2.0-3.0

 

 

0,1

0,3

0,12

0,3

0,15

0,05

0,015

0,3

Titanium sheet

Titanim bar

GOST VT5

base

4.3-6.0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

0,1

0,3

0,12

0,3

0,2

0,05

0,015

0,3

Titanium sheet

Titanim tube

GOST VT6

base

5.3-6.8

 

 

3.5-5.3

 

 

 

 

 

0,1

0,3

0,1

0,3

0,2

0,05

0,015

0,3

Titanium plate

Titanim tube

GOST VT6S

base

5.3-6.5

 

 

3.5-4.5

 

 

 

 

 

0,1

0,25

0,15

0,5

0,15

0,04

0,015

0,3

Titanium plate

Titanim bars GOST VT3-1

base

5.5-7.0

 

2.0-3.0

 

 

0.8-2.0

 

0.15-0.40

0.2-0.7

0,1

 

 

0,5

0,15

0,05

0,015

0,3

Titanium sheets

Titanim bars

GOST VT8

base

5.8-7.0

 

2.8-3.8

 

 

 

 

0.20-0.40

 

0,1

0,3

 

0,5

0,15

0,05

0,015

0,3

Titanium sheets

Titanim tubes

GOST VT9

base

5.8-7.0

 

2.8-3.8

 

1.0-2.0

 

 

0.20-0.35

 

0,1

0,25

 

 

0,15

0,05

0,015

0,3

Titanium plates

Titanim tubes

GOST VT14

base

3.5-6.3

 

2.5-3.8

0.9-1.9

 

 

 

 

 

0,1

0,25

0,15

0,3

0,15

0,05

0,015

0,3

Titanium plates

Titanim bar GOST VT15

base

2.3-3.6

 

6.8-8.0

 

 

9.5-11.5

 

 

 

0,1

0,3

0,15

 

0,12

0,05

0,012

0,3

Titanium sheet

Titanim bar

GOST VT16

base

1.8-3.8

 

4.5-5.5

4.0-5.0

 

 

 

 

 

0,1

0,25

0,15

0,3

0,15

0,05

0,015

0,3

Titanium sheet

Titanim tube

GOST VT18

base

7.2-8.2

 

0.2-1.0

 

10.-12.

 

 

0.05-0.18

 

0,1

0,15

 

 

0,14

0,05

0,015

0,3

Titanium plate

Titanim tube

GOST VT18u

base

6.2-7.3

 

0.4-1.0

 

3.5-4.5

 

2.0-3.0

0.10-0.25

 

0,1

0,2

 

 

0,14

0,04

0,015

0,3

Titanium plate

Titanim bars GOST VT20

base

5.5-7.0

 

0.5-2.0

0.8-2.5

1.5-2.5

 

 

 

 

0,1

0,25

0,15

 

0,15

0,05

0,015

0,3

Titanium

 sheets

Titanim bars

GOST VT22

base

4.4-5.7

 

4.0-5.5

4.0-5.5

 

0.5-1.5

 

 

0.5-1.5

0,1

 

0,15

0,3

0,18

0,05

0,015

0,3

Titanium sheets

Titanim tubes

GOST VT23

base

4.0-6.3

 

1.5-2.5

4.0-5.0

 

0.8-1.4

 

 

0.4-1.0

0,1

 

0,15

0,3

0,15

0,05

0,015

0,3

Titanium plates

Titanim tubes

GOST VT25

base

6.2-7.2

 

1.5-2.5

 

0.8-2.5

 

 

0.10-0.25

 

0,1

0,25

0,1

 

0,15

0,04

0,015

0,3

Titanium plates

Titanim bar GOST PT1M

base

0.2-0.7

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

0,07

0,2

0,1

0,3

0,12

0,04

0,006

0,3

Titanium

 sheet

Titanim bar

GOST 2V

base

1.5-2.5

 

 

1.0-2.0

 

 

 

 

 

0,07

0,2

0,1

 

0,12

0,04

0,003

0,3

Titanium sheet

Titanim tube

GOST PT3V

base

3.5-5.0

 

 

1.2-2.5

 

 

 

 

 

0,1

0,25

0,12

0,3

0,12

0,04

0,006

0,3

Titanium plate

Titanim tube

GOST 3M

base

3.5-5.0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

0,1

0,25

0,12

0,3

0,15

0,04

0,006

0,3

Titanium plate

Titanim bars GOST PT7M

base

1.8-2.5

 

 

 

2.0-3.0

 

 

 

 

0,1

0,25

0,12

 

0,15

0,04

0,006

0,3

Titanium

 sheets

Titanim bars

GOST 5V

base

4.4-6.0

 

0.7-1.4

1.0-1.9

 

 

 

 

 

0.06-0.1

0,25

0,12

0,1

0,13

0,04

0,005

0,3

Titanium sheets

 

FIKO is a private industrial company, owner of titanium mill in Kiev, Ukraine, for melting titanium ingots with their further working into rolled titanium titanium bars, titanium tubes, titanium sheets, titanium plates, titanium wire.

Unalloyed titanium (C.P):

ASTM Grade 1

ASTM Grade 1 :   titanium bar, titanium sheet, titanium plate, titanium wire, titanium tube, titanium pipe, titanium ingot                                                                                                   ASTM Grade 1: titanium bars, titanium sheets, titanium plates, titanium wires, titanium tubes, titanium pipes, titanium ingots  

ASTM Grade 2

ASTM Grade 2  : titanium bars, titanium sheets, titanium plates, titanium wires, titanium tubes, titanium pipes, titanium ingots                                                                   ASTM Grade 2 :  titanium bar, titanium sheet, titanium plate, titanium wire, titanium tube, titanium pipe, titanium ingot  

ASTM Grade 3

ASTM Grade 3 :  titanium bar, titanium sheet, titanium plate, titanium wire, titanium tube, titanium pipe, titanium ingot                                                                                       ASTM Grade 3 : titanium bars, titanium sheets, titanium plates, titanium wires, titanium tubes, titanium pipes, titanium ingots  

ASTM Grade 4

ASTM Grade 4: titanium bars, titanium sheets, titanium plates, titanium wires, titanium tubes, titanium pipes, titanium ingots                                                                        ASTM Grade 4 : titanium bar, titanium sheet, titanium plate, titanium wire, titanium tube, titanium pipe, titanium ingot  

 

FIKO is a private industrial company, owner of titanium mill in Kiev, Ukraine, for melting titanium ingots with their further working into rolled titanium titanium bars, titanium tubes, titanium sheets, titanium plates, titanium wire.

Titanium alloy

ASTM Grade 5

ASTM Grade 5 Titanium alloy (6 % aluminum, 4 % vanadium):   Titanium alloy titanium bar, titanium sheet, titanium plate, titanium wire, titanium tube, titanium pipe, titanium ingot  

ASTM Grade 6

ASTM Grade 6 Titanium alloy (5 % aluminum, 2.5 % tin):  titanium bars, titanium sheets, titanium plates, titanium wire, titanium tubes, titanium pipes, titanium ingots

ASTM Grade 9

ASTM Grade 9 (Ti 3 % aluminum, 2.5 % vanadium):                                                                                                                       Titanium alloy   titanium bars, titanium sheets, titanium plates, titanium wire, titanium tubes, titanium pipes, titanium ingots

 

File:Ti,22.jpg

silvery grey-white metallic
 

 

 

File:Titanium nitride coating.jpgTiN coated drill bit

 

  Titanium   (pronounced /taɪˈteɪniəm/) is a chemical element with the symbol Ti and atomic number 22. Sometimes called the space age metal, it has a low density and is a strong, lustrous, corrosion-resistant (including to sea water and chlorine) transition metal with a silver colour. Titanium can be alloyed with iron, aluminium, vanadium, molybdenum, among other elements, to produce strong lightweight alloys for aerospace (jet engines, missiles, and spacecraft), military, industrial process (chemicals and petro-chemicals, desalination plants, pulp, and paper), automotive, agri-food, medical prostheses, orthopedic implants, dental and endodontic instruments and files, dental implants, sporting goods, jewelry, mobile phones, and other applications. Titanium was discovered in England by William Gregor in 1791 and named by Martin Heinrich Klaproth for the Titans of Greek mythology.

The element occurs within a number of mineral deposits, principally rutile and ilmenite, which are widely distributed in the Earth's crust and lithosphere, and it is found in almost all living things, rocks, water bodies, and soils.[1] The metal is extracted from its principal mineral ores via the Kroll process[2] or the Hunter process. Its most common compound, titanium dioxide, is used in the manufacture of white pigments.[3] Other compounds include titanium tetrachloride (TiCl4) (used in smoke screens/skywriting and as a catalyst) and titanium trichloride (TiCl3) (used as a catalyst in the production of polypropylene).[1]

The two most useful properties of the metal form are corrosion resistance, and the highest strength-to-weight ratio of any metal.[4] In its unalloyed condition, titanium is as strong as some steels, but 45% lighter.[5] There are two allotropic forms[6] and five naturally occurring isotopes of this element; 46Ti through 50Ti, with 48Ti being the most abundant (73.8%).[7] Titanium's properties are chemically and physically similar to zirconium.

 

Titanium alloys are metallic materials which contain a mixture of titanium and other chemical elements. Such alloys have very high tensile strength and toughness (even at extreme temperatures), light weight, extraordinary corrosion resistance, and ability to withstand extreme temperatures. However, the high cost of both raw materials and processing limit their use to military applications, aircraft, spacecraft, medical devices, connecting rods on expensive sports cars and some premium sports equipment and consumer electronics. Auto manufacturers Porsche and Ferrari also use titanium alloys in engine components due to its durable properties in these high stress engine environments.

Although "commercially pure" titanium has acceptable mechanical properties and has been used for orthopedic and dental implants, for most applications titanium is alloyed with small amounts of aluminium and vanadium, typically 6% and 4% respectively, by weight. This mixture has a solid solubility which varies dramatically with temperature, allowing it to undergo precipitation strengthening. This heat treatment process is carried out after the alloy has been worked into its final shape but before it is put to use, allowing much easier fabrication of a high-strength product.

Some alloying elements raise the alpha-to-beta transition temperature (i.e. alpha stabilizers) while others lower the transition temperature (i.e. beta stabilizers). Aluminium, gallium, germanium, carbon, oxygen and nitrogen are alpha stabilizers. Molybdenum, vanadium, tantalum, niobium, manganese, iron, chromium, cobalt, nickel, copper and silicon are beta stabilizers.

Titanium Alloys are generally classified into three main categories:

  • Alpha alloys in which neutral alloying elements (such as tin) and/ or alpha stabilisers (such as Aluminium or oxygen only. These are not heat treatable.

  • Near-alpha alloys contain small amount of ductile beta-phase. Besides alpha-phase stabilisers, near-alpha alloys are alloyed with 1-2% of beta phase stabilizers such as molybdenum, silicon or Vanadium.

  • Alpha & Beta Alloys, which are metastable and generally include some combination of both alpha and beta stabilisers, and which can be heat treated.

  • Beta Alloys, which are metastable and which contain sufficient beta stabilisers (such as Molybdenum, silicon and Vanadium to allow them to maintain the beta phase when quenched, and which can also be solution treated and aged improve strength.

Generally, alpha-phase Titanium is stronger yet less ductile and beta-phase Titanium is more ductile. Alpha-beta-phase Titanium has a mechanical property which is in between both.

Titanium dioxide dissolves in the metal at high temperatures, and its formation is very energetic. These two factors mean that all titanium except the most carefully purified has a significant amount of dissolved oxygen, and so may be considered a Ti-O alloy. Oxide precipitates offer some strength (as discussed above), but are not very responsive to heat treatment and can substantially decrease the alloy's toughness.

Aside from titanium-based alloys, the term may refer to "binary" alloys which consist of a nearly even mix, atom-by-atom, of titanium and another element. Nitinol, a shape memory alloy, is a mixture of titanium and nickel, while niobium-titanium alloys are used as wires for superconducting magnets.

Many alloys also contain titanium as a minor additive, but since alloys are usually categorized according to which element forms the majority of the material, these are not usually considered to be "titanium alloys" as such. See the sub-article on titanium applications.

Titanium is a strong, light metal. It is as strong as steel but 45% lighter. It is also twice as strong as aluminium but only 60% heavier. Titanium is not easily corroded by sea water and is used in propeller shafts, rigging and other parts of boats that are exposed to sea water. Titanium and titanium alloys are used in airplanes, missiles and rockets where strength, low weight and resistance to high temperatures are important. Since titanium does not react within the human body, it is used to create artificial hips, pins for setting bones and for other biological implants. Unfortunately, the high cost of titanium has limited its widespread use. Titanium is the ninth most abundant element in the earth's crust and is primarily found in the minerals Rutile (TiO2), Ilmenite (FeTiO3) and Sphene (CaTiSiO5). Titanium makes up about 0.57% of the earth's crust. The word titanium comes from the Greek word Titans the mythological "first sons of the earth". The pure elemental metal was not made until 1910 by Matthew A. Hunter, who heated TiCl4 together with sodium in a steel bomb at 700-800C.

Grades

The ASTM defines a number of alloy standards with a numbering scheme for easy reference.

  • Grade 1-4 are unalloyed and considered commercially pure or "CP". Generally the tensile and yield strength goes up with grade number for these "pure" grades. The difference in their physical properties is primarily due to the quantity of interstitial elements. They are used for corrosion resistance applications where cost and ease of fabrication and welding are important.

  • Grade 5 is the most commonly used alloy. It has a chemical composition of 6% Aluminium, 4% Vanadium, remainder titanium, and is commonly known as Ti6Al4V, Ti-6AL-4V or simply Ti 6-4. Grade 5 is used extensively in Aerospace, Medical, Marine, and Chemical Processing.

  • Grade 6 contains 5% Aluminium and 2.5% Tin. It is also know as Ti-5Al-2.5Sn. This alloy is used in airframes and jet engines due to its good weldability, stability and strength at elevated temperatures.

  • Grade 7 contains 0.12 to 0.25% Palladium. This grade is similar to Grade 2. The small quantity of Palladium added gives it enhanced crevice corrosion resistance at low temperatures and high pH.

  • Grade 7H contains 0.12 to 0.25% Palladium. This grade has enhanced corrosion resistance.

  • Grade 9 contains 3.0% Aluminium and 2.5% Vanadium. This grade is a compromise between the ease of welding and manufacturing of the "pure" grades and the high strength of Grade 5. It is commonly used in aircraft tubing for hydraulics and in athletic equipment.

  • Grade 11 contains 0.12 to 0.25% Palladium. This grade has enhanced corrosion resistance.

  • Grade 16 contains 0.04 to 0.08% Palladium. This grade has enhanced corrosion resistance.

  • Grade 17 contains 0.04 to 0.08% Palladium. This grade has enhanced corrosion resistance.

  • Grade 18 contains 3% Aluminium, 2.5% Vanadium and 0.04 to 0.08% Palladium. This grade is identical to Grade 9 in terms of mechanical characteristics. The added Palladium gives it increased corrosion resistance.

  • Grades 26, 26H, and 27 all contain 0.08 to 0.14% Ruthenium.

  • Grade 38 contains 4% Aluminium, 2.5% Vanadium, and 1.5% Iron. This grade was developed in the 1990s for use as an armor plating. The iron reduces the amount of Vanadium needed for corrosion resistance. Its mechanical properties are very similar to Grade 5.

 

 

History of FIKO creation

and a brief history of titanium production development in Soviet Union

 

If it is interesting for you to know about history of rolled titanium production in Ukraine by private enterprises, kindly read this article. You will get to know about history of rolled titanium products, titanium sheet, titanium bar, titanium tube, titanium plate, titanium wire manufacture.

 

At the times of Soviet Union with its military-industrial system VSMPO was the world largest enterprise producing titanium rolled materials and almost monopolized all titanium supplies. 

We know many stories about manufacture of titanium submarines. For example, according to non-official information, 12 000 toms of titanium were used for manufacture of atomic submarine Komsomolets: titanium sheets, titanium plates of Grade PT3V, titanium bars, titanium tubes, titanium wire. In Severodvinsk there is the whole city for submarine manufacture, for which VSMPO supplies rolled titanium.

Rolled titanium production allowed Soviet Union to develop new armaments. For example, during Caribbean Crisis, when US Navy was directing to Cuba Coast, suddenly Soviet Unions submarines appeared. These titanium submarines were made from titanium sheets and plates PT3V, titanium bars and titanium tubes, titanium 2V alloy wire. Due to the fact that titanium sheets and bars were used for submarine manufacture, radar sets could not find out them. At that time locator could not discover submarine if the latter was made from titanium.

 

Formerly in Soviet Union only VSMPO produced: titanium ingots, titanium bars, titanium sheets, titanium plates, titanium wire, titanium thick-wall tubes. Now VSMPO also produces titanium bars, titanium sheets, titanium plates, titanium wire, titanium tubes, titanium alloy bar, titanium alloy sheets and plate, titanium alloy wire, titanium alloy tubes PT1M, PT7M, and PT3V.

 

At the time of so called Cold War, Soviet Union industry was working for military-industrial establishment. Non-ferrous alloy production was secret, including titanium production in Verhnyaya Salda. If somebody wanted to visit this city, he had to have special permission for visiting Verhnyaya Salda. Any specialist of industrial enterprise(even military-industrial) had to have the second additional permission if he wanted to see technology of titanium rolled manufacture or mill where titanium bars or sheets were rolling.

I remember that time, when FIKO cooperated with Nikopol tube plant for titanium tube production, any information was secret. For example, we could not get to know how much material or how many titanium bars was required for titanium tube production or what bars are requested for manufacture. FIKO did not have such information and it was impossible to know production prime cost of titanium bars, titanium sheets, titanium plates, titanium tubes. Such secrecy was seen all over Soviet Union.

In case any plant needed titanium bars or titanium tubes for own application this plant should have a special order for supply. That is why most of government companies tried to have own titanium stock of titanium ingots, titanium bars, titanium sheets, titanium plates, titanium wire, titanium tubes and usually enquired for more materials that actually needed. Thats why they tried to receive more titanium products in 2 times than they actually needed.

This led to considerable stockpiling of titanium materials titanium bars, titanium tubes, titanium sheets and plates, titanium wire.

Industrial companies had been keeping titanium in their warehouses for tens of years. This led to creation of corrupt economics.

 

Besides government had a politics that titanium bars and titanium sheets and plates were bought for keeping in the Government Reserve. But for state with military-industrial system it was not enough. For that Mobilization reserve was created, where titanium tubes, titanium bars, titanium sheets were keeping in case of war.

 

All standards such as GOST, TU and OST for titanium bars, titanium tubes, titanium sheets, titanium rolled products were secret and for official use only. Even recently we met with a problem that we needed GOST for titanium sheets VT23, but Paton Institutes official said that such information was secret. We tried to study this problem in internet and we understood that was very difficult to have GOST for titanium sheets and bars used in military industry.

 

FIKO has such standards and can always provide necessary documentation for titanium sheets and titanium bars.

 

Corrupt economics sold titanium sponge, titanium ingots, rolled titanium products (titanium bars, titanium sheets, titanium plates, titanium wire, titanium tubes) from government reserve at prices much lower than prime cost of production. Thats why VSMPO could not stand such competition and sell titanium at price lower than prime cost of production because titanium sheets and titanium bars forwarded to reserve had nominal price but due to inflation that price was lower than actual titanium scrap price.

 

Everybody who had access to government reserve bought titanium sheets and titanium bars for nothing and resold products to private enterprises.

 

As soon as market relations approached, the non-state capital broke the sole right of VSMPO for titanium materials supplies. The newspapers were full of different ads and trade leads offering sale of titanium bars, titanium sheets, titanium tubes and wire. On one side it caused the break-up of governmental planned supplies; on the other side VSMPO couldnt take orders from small companies and therefore had to reduce production of titanium ingots, which inevitably led to the reduction of titanium bars, titanium tubes, titanium sheets and plates, titanium wire manufacture.

 

That is the main reason for appearance of alternative source of titanium ingots and rolled materials in Ukraine.

 

Because of output reduction of titanium ingot and titanium products in VSMPO, new manufacture of titanium ingots and products started to appear in Ukraine.

 

In the E.O. Paton Electric Welding Institute academician Tikhanovsky researched the problem of titanium ingots production at his created eneterprise TIKO. In 1993 Tikhanovsky acquainted with JSC FIKO. At that time TIKO had a lot of debts to banks. In 1993, JSC FIKO bought his company and starting from 1993 titanium ingots were melted at FIKOs plant. FIKO team together with academician Tikhanovsky developed the following technologies of titanium ingots melting:

-         melting of titanium ingots from titanium sponge by electron-beam method

-         melting of titanium ingots from titanium scrap and sponge by EB method

-         melting of titanium ingots from titanium sponge by EB method

-         melting of titanium ingots from titanium scrap, sponge and titanium cuttings (turnings) by EB method

-         melting of titanium ingots from titanium scrap with ligature supplement by EB method

 

FIKO creates own design bureau to construct the equipment for production of titanium ingots which was led by Mr. Tour. In Ukraine and Soviet Union FIKO was the only private enterprise that not only has developed technique documentation of equipment for titanium ingots manufacture but transmitted this documentation to other industrial plants which produces parts for manufacturing equipment of titanium ingots.

 

FIKO has been melting titanium ingots since 1994. The ingots were mostly melted from Grade 2 and VT1-0 materials. However, VT1-0 was more preferable as the scrap price was lower than of sponge. The technology of preparation of titanium scrap for melting was under special attention, since titanium scrap quality influences greatly the quality of the melted ingot.

 

Formerly, FIKO used to buy worked out equipment for scrap to produce titanium ingots. Later on, as the manufacture grew stronger in Ukraine, the private companies began to supply titanium scrap.

 

FIKO then produced titanium ingots dia 400mm weighting 700kg to 1100kg. Because of Al content 0.7% in the chemical composition of VT1-0 ingots, this material was not required among customers of Western Europe and USA. But due to lower price for ingots melted from scrap, VT1-0 ingots could be supplied to Asian market and partly in Europe. But then it was a real threat of suspension of production.

 

In 1996 1997 FIKO melted alloyed titanium ingots. Further, after melting equipment modernization we started to melt ingots dia 630mm with the weight around 3200kg.

 

Nowadays FIKO also buys titanium scrap in form of titanium cuttings for manufacture. Industrial enterprises use titanium sheets, titanium plates, titanium bars, titanium tubes for manufacture, and cutoff pieces are used as scrap for ingot melting by us.

When price for FeTi was increasing, worked out equipment was not applied just as scrap but also for making of sheets and plates intended for China.

 

At the same time, FIKO tried to establish manufacture of titanium rolled materials in Ukraine: titanium bars and titanium ingots on JSC Sumy Frunze NPO maching-building plant and Zaporozhye Steel Mill Dneprospetsstal, titanium tubes on Nikopol tube plant, titanium sheets and plates on Alchevsk metallurgical plant.

The cooperation with other Ukrainian industrial enterprises allowed us to offer our customers not only titanium ingots produced at our plant but also titanium rolled materials that was made from our ingots by our partners: titanium ingots, titanium bars, titanium sheets, titanium plates, titanium wire, titanium tubes

 

From our titanium ingots JSC Sumy Frunze NPO manufactured titanium forged bars and titanium hot-rolled bars with dia over 80mm.

JSC Sumy Frunze NPO except producing titanium bars from FIKOs titanium ingots, also purchased our titanium rolled materials such as titanium bars and titanium tubes for own manufactured titanium heat exchangers, other titanium equipment for chemical and petrochemical industry.

One of our cooperation sectors with JSC Sumy Frunze NPO was joint participation in tenders for supply of titanium bars and tubes.

Among first such contracts was supply of titanium tubes to Soda plant in Bulgaria. FIKO ltd supplied to JSC Sumy Frunze NPO titanium ingots, from which titanium forged bars were made and further worked into titanium tube billet. After that, the tubes were produced from tube billets at Nikopol tube plant.

 There were 3 participants in this project: FIKO, JSC Sumy Frunze NPO and Nikopol tube plant.

Other forms of cooperation between FIKO and JSC Sumy Frunze NPO were following:

-         Joint manufacture and supply of titanium equipment. For this purpose FIKO supplied titanium ingots, titanium bars, titanium sheets to JSC Sumy Frunze NPO.

-         Barter transaction: FIKO gave titanium products for titanium equipment of JSC Sumy Frunze NPO.

 

In 1993-1998 FIKO supplied titanium centrifuges for sugar plants. That provides an opportunity to arrange supply of gas and petrochemical products for production of sugar based on the exchange for titanium ingots, titanium bars, titanium sheets and plates, titanium tubes. JSC Sumy Frunze NPO supplies gas to FIKO sugar plant trought Government reserve, and FIKO supplied rolled titanium products in exchange for gas.

 

With Nikopol tube plant, we worked by the same scheme supplied titanium ingots for production of: titanium forged bars from titanium ingots, titanium rolled bars from titanium ingots, titanium tubes for re-rolling from titanium ingots, titanium tubes with wall thickness from 0.5mm, titanium tubes from titanium ingots on give-and-take basis. 

Titanium sheets and titanium plates were produced in collaboration with Alchevsk metallurgical plant from titanium ingots of FIKO Ltd. Alchevsk metallurgical plant had specialization in production of rolled titanium products for shipbuilding. It produced titanium sheets PT3V, titanium plates PT3V, titanium sheets and plates from other titanium alloys.

 

Thus, there was an alternative source of titanium bars and titanium tubes except VSMPO materials.

 

At that time the financial system of Soviet Union collapsed and numerous industrial companies had to sell their stock of titanium materials at extremely low prices, lower than the prices of VSMPO.

I know cases when VSMPO did not supply large quantity of rolled products to Norilsk Nickel. And other Russian private companies had to perform orders of Norilsk Nickel and these companies purchased titanium bars and titanium sheets in FIKO and titanium plates, titanium tubes and titanium wire in Government reserve.

 

And FIKO had an opportunity to supply titanium sheets, bars, wire and tubes through Moscow companies to Norilsk Nickel, one of VSMPO former customer.

 

 VSMPO started to loose its market in Russia and CIS for titanium products supply, including titanium bars, titanium tubes, titanium sheets and plates. But any case VSMPO is VSMPO. VSMPO is a large industrial city. VSMPO is a large world manufacturer. VSMPO is a titanium supplier for military industry of Russia. VSMPO is a titanium products supplier for Boeing. Any manufacturer of titanium products is interested in cooperation with VSMPO.

 

Setab company bought 49% of stock share capital of Nikopol tube plant workshop#5. Then Setab resold shares to VSMPO. FIKO ltd was also interested in purchasing of Nikopol tube plant workshop#5. Unfortunately Nikopol tube plant workshop#5 became the property of VSMPO.

 

In addition, the companies did not purchased large quantities of titanium any more, so it was a good chance to stock the materials and sell them in retail by small lots.

And FIKO Ltd set up own stock with the wide range of titanium materials: titanium ingots, titanium forged bars ,  titanium hot rolled bars, titanium turned bars, titanium alloyed bars, titanium sheets, titanium plates, titanium wire, titanium seamless tubes , titanium welded tubes

 

 The variety of materials on our stock allows us to supply our titanium not only in Ukraine and CIS but also worldwide.

 

At that time a lot of private companies bought titanium bars, titanium sheet, titanium plates for nothing and then cut these products into scrap. Huge volume of titanium products VT 1-0, PT3V and of other alloys was damaged.

When FIKO became involved in titanium ingot production, all available money was spent for purchasing of VSMPOs rolled titanium products. Firstly titanium sheets and titanium bars VT 1-0 and VT 6 were bought. Because FIKO is less specialized in titanium alloys, FIKO started buying titanium alloy sheets and titanium alloy bars. If suppliers did not have certificates of VSMPO, FIKO made analysis for those products.

Now FIKO has rolled titanium produced by VSMPO in stock: titanium bars, titanium sheets, titanium plates.

 

We supply titanium rolled materials produced both VSMPO and from our ingots: titanium bars, titanium alloy bars of different grades, titanium sheets, titanium alloy sheets of different grades, titanium plates, titanium alloy plates of different grades, titanium tubes, titanium alloy  tubes of different grades, titanium wire, titanium alloy wire of different grades.

Since 2006 titanium plant FIKO has new investors. New melting equipment is being constructed which will melt titanium ingots dia 800 mm x 4000 mm long and titanium slabs 500x1350x4000 mm. Large dimensions of titanium ingots and slabs will allow to increase productive capacity of the plant in 6 times. There are not many manufacturers of slabs in the world. Titanium slabs are used for titanium sheet production. Taking into account that titanium sheets are produced by forging of titanium ingots into titanium bars or titanium slabs, now titanium slabs are being rolled into titanium sheets without additional transactions. Slabs with large dimensions will be used for manufacture of large forged titanium bars and titanium rings.

 

In the second half year of 2009 FIKO will offer titanium ingots and titanium slabs of large dimensions. We are going to keep on manufacture of rolled titanium on give-and-take basis: production of titanium sheets and titanium plates from titanium slabs with the largest world manufacturers of titanium products, including titanium sheets and titanium bars.

FIKO can produce titanium forged bars dia 700 mm and less, titanium turned bars dia 700 mm and less from titanium ingots dia 800 mm in Ukraine. FIKO can use titanium forged bars to produce titanium rings of large dimensions.

 

FIKO asks you to provide necessary available information for this article about titanium production history in USSR. Well appreciate if you give us information about release and supplies of titanium rolled products in USSR including production: titanium sheets, titanium plates, titanium bars, and titanium wire.

FIKO is interested in any information concerning rolled titanium production, titanium equipment manufacture, technologies of titanium production.

 

In 2008 the next collapse of world economics and titanium industry happened.

 

FIKO ltd offers for rent a part of premises: rent of industrial premises, office rent, rent of storage facilities, and rent of production spaces. We provide leaser with electricity, heating, water, sewerage, cranes, industrial equipment.

 

If you are interested in starting titanium business, please look through updating of this article. You will get to know about world titanium manufacture including titanium sheets, titanium bars, titanium tubes, titanium wire, and titanium plates. If you want to know application of titanium sheet, titanium bar, titanium tube, titanium wire, titanium plate, visit our web site and you will find new information concerning:

-         manufacture of rolled titanium products: titanium sheets, titanium bars, titanium tubes, titanium wire, titanium plates;

-         world titanium markets of rolled titanium products: titanium sheets, titanium bars, titanium tubes, titanium wire, titanium plates;

-         world prices for rolled titanium products: titanium sheets, titanium bars, titanium tubes, titanium wire, titanium plates;

-         world output of rolled titanium products: titanium sheets, titanium bars, titanium tubes, titanium wire, titanium plates.

 

Manufacturers and suppliers of titanium sponge and rolled titanium products in CIS:

-         Zaporozhskiy TMK titanium sponge: titanium sponge TG90; titanium sponge TG100; titanium sponge TG110; sponge TG120; sponge TG130; sponge TG150; sponge TG-TV;

-         Ust-Kamenogorskiy TMK titanium sponge: titanium sponge TG90; titanium sponge TG100; titanium sponge TG110; sponge TG120; sponge TG130; sponge TG150; sponge TG-TV;

-         Bereznyakovskiy TMK titanium sponge: titanium sponge TG90; titanium sponge TG100; titanium sponge TG110; sponge TG120; sponge TG130; sponge TG150; sponge TG-TV;

-         VSMPO-Avisma rolled titanium and titanium alloy products: titanium alloy bars; titanium alloy sheets; titanium alloy plates; titanium alloy tubes, titanium ingots, titanium alloy wire;

-         FIKO ltd (Electron Beam Plant FIKO) rolled titanium products: titanium bar, titanium sheet, titanium plate, titanium tube, titanium wire and titanium ingot.